55. Under the homeopathic principles, “the greater the dilution, the more potent the
Dr Peter Fisher, Director of the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital,
described how homeopathic dilutions are made:
[They] are prepared by a process of sequential dilution with vigorous shaking at each
stage of dilution, known as succussion. Dilution is usually in steps of 1:10 or 1:100,
referred to as x or d (decimal) or c (centesimal) respectively.
56. For example, a 30C dilution indicates that the solution has been diluted in the ratio of
1:100, thirty times successively; one drop of the original solution would be diluted with 100
drops of water and the resulting solution would be diluted again, and so on until 30
dilutions had taken place. According to the Prince’s Foundation for Integrated Health, in
some homeopathic products “not even a single molecule of the original substance remains
in the diluted medicine prescribed to the patient”.
57. Dr Fisher stated that the process of “shaking is important”61
but was unable to say how
much shaking was required. He said “that has not been fully investigated”62
but did tell us
that “You have to shake it vigorously [...] if you just stir it gently, it does not work”.
58. A number of theories have been proposed to explain how water that does not contain a
single molecule of the active ingredient can retain the properties of that ingredient and
have a physiological action on the patient. The most frequently mentioned in the written
evidence is the theory of “molecular memory”, which proposes that water can retain some
imprint of substances previously dissolved in it. Some of the explanations for how water
might remember substances dissolved in it cite electromagnetic properties,
- frequency imprinting,
- quantum physics
- and supra-molecular behaviour of water (that is, large-
- scale interactions).